References

1.      Abend NS, Dlugos DJ, Hahn CD, Hirsch LJ, Herman ST. Use of EEG monitoring and management of non-convulsive seizures in critically ill patients: a survey of neurologists. Neurocrit Care. 2010;12(3):382-389. doi:10.1007/s12028-010-9337-2

2.    Amantini A, Carrai R, Lori S, et al. Neurophysiological monitoring in adult and pediatric intensive care. Minerva Anestesiol. 2012;78(9):1067-1075.

3.     Belcastro V, Vidale S, Gorgone G, et al. Non-convulsive status epilepticus after ischemic stroke: a hospital-based stroke cohort study. J Neurol. 2014;261(11):2136-2142. doi:10.1007/s00415-014-7471-z

4.     Cheng S. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in the elderly. Epileptic Disord. 2014;16(4):385-394. doi:10.1684/epd.2014.0709

5.    Chung JM. Seizures in the acute stroke setting. Neurol Res. 2014;36(5):403-406. doi:10.1179/1743132814Y.0000000352

6.    Friedman D, Claassen J, Hirsch LJ. Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring in the intensive care unit. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(2):506-523. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e3181a9d8b5

7.     Haffey S, McKernan A, Pang K. Non-convulsive status epilepticus: a profile of patients diagnosed within a tertiary referral centre. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75(7):1043-1044. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2003.019612

8.    Husain AM, Horn GJ, Jacobson MP. Non-convulsive status epilepticus: usefulness of clinical features in selecting patients for urgent EEG. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(2):189-191. doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.2.189

9.    Kondziella D, Friberg CK, Wellwood I, Reiffurth C, Fabricius M, Dreier JP. Continuous EEG monitoring in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review. Neurocrit Care. 2015;22(3):450-461. doi:10.1007/s12028-014-0068-7

10.  Laccheo I, Sonmezturk H, Bhatt AB, et al. Non-convulsive status epilepticus and non-convulsive seizures in neurological ICU patients. Neurocrit Care. 2015;22(2):202-211. doi:10.1007/s12028-014-0070-0

11.    Lindgren C, Nordh E, Naredi S, Olivecrona M. Frequency of non-convulsive seizures and non-convulsive status epilepticus in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients in need of controlled ventilation and sedation. Neurocrit Care. 2012;17(3):367-373. doi:10.1007/s12028-012-9771-4

12.  Meierkord H, Holtkamp M. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in adults: clinical forms and treatment. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6(4):329-339. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70074-1

13.  Mesraoua B, Wieser HG. Non-convulsive seizures and non-convulsive status epilepticus monitoring in the intensive care unit. A real need for the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2009;14(4):323-337.

14.  Scholtes FB, Renier WO, Meinardi H. Non-convulsive status epilepticus: causes, treatment, and outcome in 65 patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996;61(1):93-95. doi:10.1136/jnnp.61.1.93

15.  Siddiqui M, Jamil N, Malik A, Bano A, Khan FS, Siddiqui K. Frequency of non convulsive status epilepticus in patients with impaired level of consciousness. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59(5):296-298.

16.  Tomson T, Svanborg E, Wedlund JE. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus: high incidence of complex partial status. Epilepsia. 1986;27(3):276-285. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1986.tb03540.x

17.   Zehtabchi S, Abdel Baki SG, Omurtag A, et al. Prevalence of non-convulsive seizure and other electroencephalographic abnormalities in ED patients with altered mental status. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31(11):1578-1582. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2013.08.002

18.  DeLorenzo RJ, Waterhouse EJ, Towne AR, et al. Persistent nonconvulsive status epilepticus after the control of convulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 1998;39(8):833-840. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1998.tb01177.x

19.  Vespa PM, Nuwer MR, Nenov V, et al. Increased incidence and impact of nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury as detected by continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. J Neurosurg. 1999;91(5):750-760. doi:10.3171/jns.1999.91.5.0750

20. Ronne-Engstrom E, Winkler T. Continuous EEG monitoring in patients with traumatic brain injury reveals a high incidence of epileptiform activity. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006;114(1):47-53. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2006.00652.x

21.  Claassen J, Jetté N, Chum F, et al. Electrographic seizures and periodic discharges after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2007;69(13):1356-1365. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000281664.02615.6c

22. Mecarelli O, Pro S, Randi F, et al. EEG patterns and epileptic seizures in acute phase stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2011;31(2):191-198. doi:10.1159/000321872

23. Vespa PM, O’Phelan K, Shah M, et al. Acute seizures after intracerebral hemorrhage: a factor in progressive midline shift and outcome. Neurology. 2003;60(9):1441-1446. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000063316.47591.b4

24. Legriel S, Bruneel F, Sediri H, et al. Early EEG monitoring for detecting postanoxic status epilepticus during therapeutic hypothermia: a pilot study. Neurocrit Care. 2009;11(3):338-344. doi:10.1007/s12028-009-9246-4

25. Rittenberger JC, Popescu A, Brenner RP, Guyette FX, Callaway CW. Frequency and timing of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in comatose post-cardiac arrest subjects treated with hypothermia. Neurocrit Care. 2012;16(1):114-122. doi:10.1007/s12028-011-9565-0

26. Rossetti AO, Logroscino G, Liaudet L, et al. Status epilepticus: an independent outcome predictor after cerebral anoxia. Neurology. 2007;69(3):255-260. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000265819.36639.e0

27. Rundgren M, Rosén I, Friberg H. Amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) predicts outcome after cardiac arrest and induced hypothermia. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32(6):836-842. doi:10.1007/s00134-006-0178-6

28. Flores-Cordero JM, Amaya-Villar R, Rincón-Ferrari MD, et al. Acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults admitted to the intensive care unit: clinical manifestations, management and prognostic factors. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(11):1967-1973. doi:10.1007/s00134-003-1935-4

29. Zoons E, Weisfelt M, de Gans J, et al. Seizures in adults with bacterial meningitis. Neurology. 2008;70(22 Pt 2):2109-2115. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000288178.91614.5d

30. Young GB, Jordan KG, Doig GS. An assessment of nonconvulsive seizures in the intensive care unit using continuous EEG monitoring: an investigation of variables associated with mortality. Neurology. 1996;47(1):83-89. doi:10.1212/wnl.47.1.83

31.  Jirsch J, Hirsch LJ. Nonconvulsive seizures: developing a rational approach to the diagnosis and management in the critically ill population. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118(8):1660-1670. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.11.312

32. Krumholz A, Sung GY, Fisher RS, Barry E, Bergey GK, Grattan LM. Complex partial status epilepticus accompanied by serious morbidity and mortality. Neurology. 1995;45(8):1499-1504. doi:10.1212/wnl.45.8.1499

33. Rabinowicz AL, Correale JD, Bracht KA, Smith TD, DeGiorgio CM. Neuron-specific enolase is increased after nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsia. 1995;36(5):475-479. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1995.tb00489.x

34. Vespa P, Prins M, Ronne-Engstrom E, et al. Increase in extracellular glutamate caused by reduced cerebral perfusion pressure and seizures after human traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study. J Neurosurg. 1998;89(6):971-982. doi:10.3171/jns.1998.89.6.0971

35. Vespa P, Martin NA, Nenov V, et al. Delayed increase in extracellular glycerol with post-traumatic electrographic epileptic activity: support for the theory that seizures induce secondary injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2002;81:355-357. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-6738-0_90

36. Vespa P, Tubi M, Claassen J, et al. Metabolic crisis occurs with seizures and periodic discharges after brain trauma. Ann Neurol. 2016;79(4):579-590. doi:10.1002/ana.24606

37. Williams AJ, Tortella FC, Lu XM, Moreton JE, Hartings JA. Antiepileptic drug treatment of nonconvulsive seizures induced by experimental focal brain ischemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;311(1):220-227. doi:10.1124/jpet.104.069146

38. Krsek P, Mikulecká A, Druga R, et al. Long-term behavioral and morphological consequences of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in rats. Epilepsy Behav. 2004;5(2):180-191. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2003.11.032

39. Young GB, Doig GS. Continuous EEG monitoring in comatose intensive care patients: epileptiform activity in etiologically distinct groups. Neurocrit Care. 2005;2(1):5-10. doi:10.1385/NCC:2:1:005

40. Krumholz A. Epidemiology and evidence for morbidity of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;16(4):314-353. doi:10.1097/00004691-199907000-00003

41.  Kaplan PW. Prognosis in nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Epileptic Disord. 2000;2(4):185-193.

42. Claassen J, Mayer SA, Kowalski RG, Emerson RG, Hirsch LJ. Detection of electrographic seizures with continuous EEG monitoring in critically ill patients. Neurology. 2004;62(10):1743-1748. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000125184.88797.62

43. Quigg M, Shneker B, Domer P. Current practice in administration and clinical criteria of emergent EEG. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;18(2):162-165. doi:10.1097/00004691-200103000-00007

44. Kamousi, B., Grant, A. & Woo, R. in American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Meeting 2017 (2017).

45.Gururangan, K., Razavi, B. & J., P. Diagnostic Utility of Eight-Channel EEG for Detecting Seizures and Seizure-Like Activity. CLINICAL NEUROPHY PRACTICE In Press (2017).

46. Gururangan K, Razavi B, Parvizi J. Utility of electroencephalography: Experience from a U.S. tertiary care medical center. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;127(10):3335-3340. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2016.08.013

47. Parvizi J, Gururangan K, Razavi B, Chafe C. Detecting silent seizures by their sound. Epilepsia. 2018;59(4):877-884. doi:10.1111/epi.14043

48. Kamousi, B., Bachelder, B., Grant, A., Min, P. & Woo, R. in American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Meeting (2017).

49. Hobbs, K., Krishnamohan, P., Legault. C. & Gururangan, K., Mlynash, M. in American Epilepsy Society Meeting 2017 (Washington DC, 2017).

50. Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Status Epilepticus. Neurocritical Care. 2012 Aug;17(1):3-23.

51. Parvizi, J., K. Gururangan, B. Razavi and C. Chafe (2017). Individuals without EEG training can detect subclinical seizures and seizure-like activity by listening to sonified EEG. American Epilepsy Society Meeting 2017. Washington DC.

52. Data on file

53. Kamousi, B. et al. Monitoring the Burden of Seizures and Highly Epileptiform Patterns in Critical Care with a Novel Machine Learning Method. Neurocritical Care. doi: 10.1007 s12028-020-01120-0, October 2020

54. COVID-19 Recommendations of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society — https://www.acns.org/practice/covid-19-resources

55. Herman ST, Abend NS, Bleck TP, et al. Consensus statement on continuous EEG in critically ill adults and children, part I: indications. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2015;32(2):87-95. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000166

56. Brophy GM, Bell R, Claassen J, et al. Guidelines for the evaluation and management of status epilepticus. Neurocrit Care. 2012;17(1):3-23. doi:10.1007/s12028-012-9695-z

57. Young GB, Jordan KG, Doig GS. An assessment of nonconvulsive seizures in the intensive care unit using continuous EEG monitoring: an investigation of variables associated with mortality. Neurology. 1996;47(1):83-89. doi:10.1212/wnl.47.1.83

58. Vespa PM, Olson DM, John S, et al. Evaluating the Clinical Impact of Rapid Response Electroencephalography: The DECIDE Multicenter Prospective Observational Clinical Study. Crit Care Med. 2020;48(9):1249-1257. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000004428

59. Wright NMK, Madill ES, Isenberg D, et al. Evaluating the utility of Rapid Response EEG in emergency care [published online ahead of print, 2021 May 26]. Emerg Med J. 2021;emermed-2020-210903. doi:10.1136/emermed-2020-210903

60. Kamousi B, Karunakaran S, Gururangan K, et al. Monitoring the Burden of Seizures and Highly Epileptiform Patterns in Critical Care with a Novel Machine Learning Method. Neurocrit Care. 2021;34(3):908-917. doi:10.1007/s12028-020-01120-0

61.  Westover MB, Gururangan K, Markert MS, et al. Diagnostic Value of Electroencephalography with Ten Electrodes in Critically Ill Patients. Neurocrit Care. 2020;33(2):479-490. doi:10.1007/s12028-019-00911-4